First aid in case of electric shock: what can be done before the ambulance arrives
Electrical damage, or electric shock, we usually get in everyday life: broken sockets, electrical appliances, neglect of elementary precautions – these are the main causes of electrical injury. But danger can wait and on the street. These are dangling electric wires, thunderstorms with lightning.
An electric trauma can be deadly, and often the first, even first-aid first aid rendered on time, will save a person’s life if an electric shock occurs.
How does the current on the human body
The peculiarity of the electric shock lies in the special effect of the electric current. When elektrotravme occurs this.
There is an electric burner. The current flows through the tissues, heats them, causing burns; where he entered and left, current signs — dots or stripes — are formed.
There may be a malfunction of the heart. This is due to the fact that electrical impulses are generated in the heart, which allow it to contract. When exposed to external impulses during an electric shock, the rhythm is disturbed, and the heart may even stop.
The whole human body is a good conductor. Therefore, the current easily passes through it, damaging organs, muscles, and blood vessels. The first to suffer are the nervous and respiratory systems. There are convulsions, the victim loses consciousness, breathing can stop.
Degree of shock
1. The easiest 1st degree: a person does not lose consciousness, he has muscle cramps, but they quickly pass, leaving a feeling of weakness.
The safest 1 st degree of electric shock
2. At the 2nd degree, along with convulsions, loss of consciousness occurs. In this case, the heart works, breathing is not disturbed.
3. Grade 3 is more severe: a person loses consciousness, convulsions are possible, cardiac muscle activity, breathing is disturbed.
4. The electric shock that caused clinical death is related to the 4th degree – the heart stops, there is no breathing.
How severe the damage will be depends on several factors: the strength and voltage of the current; alternating it is either constant; how long a person is under his action. Play a certain role and the individual characteristics of the person.
How to give first aid when an electric shock
Everyone needs to know what to do with an electric shock.
The primary task is to stop the current
It is necessary to de-energize the devices or (if not possible) to remove the person from the source of electric current.
You should take care of your own safety. After all, being under the current, the man himself becomes his guide. Therefore, by touching it without protection, you risk to lie down next to the victim, and help is required for both. It should also be understood: everything that a person under current relates to can also be dangerous — a current can flow through these objects.
Do not touch with bare hands to a person who is electrocuted.
When an electric shock occurred indoors from an electrical appliance or an outlet, it is best to de-energize the entire network — turn off the common switch.
When it is impossible to turn off the electricity, the current source should be removed from the victim. In no case do not touch the victim with his bare hands, and of course you can not remove the wire under tension from him. Rubber gloves can protect. You can throw the wire off the victim with a wooden stick, rolled-up paper, etc. You can pull a person by taking him by the edge of his clothes, without touching the exposed parts of the body.
When a person is hit by a lightning strike, his body will not be under stress. You can safely touch it with your bare hands.
And when a person receives an electric shock from a high-voltage wire lying on the ground, especially damp (but not on the asphalt – the asphalt does not conduct current), then an area within 6 meters of the wire will be dangerous. In this situation, it is necessary to approach the victim either in rubber boots, or placing wooden planks, rubber and other dielectric materials (i.e., not conducting current) under your feet. Or close to a dangerous place without taking your feet off the ground.
Dielectric materials: wood (dry!), Paper, rubber, cardboard, glass.
The conductors are water, all metals, earth, the human body.
Further, first aid for electric shock will depend on the depth of the lesion. For this you need to assess the condition of the person:
is he conscious?
is breathing heard?
Is there a pulse?
At first aid, probe the victim’s pulse.
Further actions depend on the answers to these questions.
The man did not lose consciousness
After electric shock, the likelihood of heart rhythm disturbances is high. A person may experience dizziness, fright, fatigue. In this case, the less you move the victim, the better. He should not make sudden movements, quickly get up. It is advisable to lay him down, cover with a blanket and call an ambulance. You can give him valerian.
If a burn is formed after exposure to the current, it is treated. How this is done, see here.
Unconscious man, he breathes, his heart works
The victim must be put on his side, call an ambulance.
No breathing, no heartbeat
It should immediately begin resuscitation – to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage