How to treat wounds and abrasions
Cuts, abrasions, scratches, wounds in everyday life are common. Especially often this happens with children, but adults are not immune from minor injuries.
What to do in such cases? It seems that everyone knows this: poured iodine or alcohol, glued a plaster or tied up with a bandage – and everything is in order.
In reality, the situation is a little different. If you improperly treat a wound or abrasion, it will hurt and heal longer, an ugly scar will remain after it, and serious complications are also possible.
What are wounds and abrasions
Most often in everyday life we are confronted with cuts and abrasions.
Abrasion is formed by mechanical friction on a hard, rough, rough surface. This happens, for example, when falling on a gravel or asphalt road.
Abrasions can be superficial when only the epidermis is affected. The skin at the injury site becomes red and swollen. With deeper abrasions, small capillaries are damaged, droplets of blood protrude on the surface of the damaged skin (spot bleeding) and, most importantly, severe pain arises.
When cutting, bleeding must be stopped.
When a cut is made – a shallow cut wound – either only the skin is damaged, or the subcutaneous fat is affected. When cutting, bleeding occurs, the intensity of which depends on the depth of the wound and on how many vessels are damaged.
Wounds can also be deep, with damage to large vessels, with heavy bleeding, accompanied by bruises and bruises. They can get foreign objects, dirt, earth.
How to treat abrasions and wounds
Before treating, a wound or abrasion must be disinfected. Otherwise, an infection can get into the damaged tissues, causing an inflammatory process.
Here is an algorithm for cutting, wounding or abrasion.
1. Wash the wound
At home, the best thing is to wash the damage with water and soap. To do this, the wound or abrasion is poured from the bottle with cold water, in which soap is previously dissolved. Water will wash away dirt, sand, and other debris that has fallen into a wound, and stop minor bleeding. With intensive bleeding, the wound should be washed carefully so that the bleeding does not increase.
It is better to wash the wound with soap and water.
You can not: use water from a lake or river – there may be pathogenic microorganisms. If you have received a wound in nature and there is no clean water at hand, it is better to wash it with any water antiseptic: hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, miramistin, a weak solution of potassium permanganate, furatsilina solution. Such a tool should always be present in the first-aid kit.
2. Remove foreign objects from the wound.
This can be done with tweezers, but very carefully.
Tweezers can be used to pull out a foreign object.
You can not: delve into the wound, try to expand it to remove a foreign object. It is better to seek professional help.
3. Stop bleeding
If the blood does not stop after washing with cold water, apply a wipe or tampon soaked with hydrogen peroxide to damage.
If the wound is deep and the bleeding is severe, then hydrogen peroxide will not help. In this case, you need to put a clean napkin on the wound and contact the emergency room.
4. Treat the wound
What to handle abrasion / injury? Any antiseptic will work, better on a water basis (see above).
It is impossible to pour solutions on alcohol on a wound
It is impossible: to pour solutions on alcohol on the wound (iodine, vodka, brilliant green), they can burn injured tissues. They can only lubricate the area around the damage.
5. Use an ointment to heal wounds.
To heal abrasions and wounds, use healing ointments, gels, sprays (Eplan, Solcoseryl gel or jelly, Argosulfan, Panthenol spray). After treatment, the wound should be dried with a napkin and apply a healing agent on a dry surface.
You can not: use bactericidal powders for fresh wound, as they prevent the wound edges from tightening.
Minor damage and abrasions do not need to dress. They will heal faster if they stay open. In addition, the bandage and plaster stick to a fresh crust and can tear it off when removed, not to mention that they come off with pain. If the abrasion is large, then it is still necessary to close it with a bandage, but after it dries and a crust forms.
If the wound is large, then you need to put a bandage
A sterile dressing should be applied to a deep wound in such a way as to maximize its edges.
When to see a doctor
1. If there is a lot of dirt in the wound, earth or it is applied with rusty iron. You may need to do a tetanus shot.
2. If the edges of the wound diverge greatly. This wound needs to be stitched so that there is no coarse scar left.
3. If the bleeding is severe and does not stop for 20–30 minutes. A large vessel may be damaged or blood clotting may be impaired.
4. If after a while the skin around the wound is swollen, the wound fester, jerks, fever. This indicates infection. Such a wound should be treated by a surgeon.