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First aid: how to massage the heart and artificial respiration

There are situations when your competent and precise actions can save a human life. If you see that a person has lost consciousness, his breath is not bugged, immediately call an ambulance. And before she arrives, it is necessary to assess the condition of the victim, and begin resuscitation actions (heart massage and artificial respiration), if necessary.

Heart massage – when it is needed
By heart massage (indirect – NMS), we mean actions that are meant to “start” the stopped heart muscle.

The most important thing: the heart massage is necessary and can be performed only if the cardiac activity has stopped, that is, a clinical death has occurred.
Clinical death involves the absence of cardiac activity. It lasts about 4 minutes. If during this time the victim is not helped, biological death will occur: irreversible changes will occur in the brain.

By what signs can we determine that clinical death has occurred?

The victim fainted.
He is not breathing.
He has no pulse, no heartbeat.
Pupils are dilated and do not react to light.
How to massage the heart
Action algorithm

1. Find out if the heart muscle is working. More precisely, the pulse can be detected on the carotid artery. It is located on the neck, front side. Press two fingers forefinger and middle (not big!) In the place of its localization. You can listen to the heartbeat by pressing your ear to the left side of the chest.

How to properly massage the heart
If you are not sure whether there is a pulse, pay attention to other signs: whether there is consciousness, breathing. Check the pupils. In humans, the pupil in a normal state with light narrows, and during clinical death, it is constantly expanded.

2. Place the victim on something solid, supine position. Throw back his head, if possible, putting something under it (roller, rolled-up jacket, etc.).

3. The right palm (left, if you are left-handed) is placed on the sternum, up 2 fingers from its bottom edge.

How to do artificial respiration and heart massage
Put your left palm on your right. The arms are straight (not elbowed in the elbows) and located strictly perpendicular to the chest.

4. Rhythmically and smoothly press on the chest with the base of the palms using body weight. The rib cage bends 4–5 cm and then comes back. It should be done b0-100 pressures per minute.

5. Massage should be carried out before the appearance of heart contractions. Periodically check the pulse.

6. Heart massage is supplemented with artificial respiration. Then alternate: first 30 presses, then two breaths. It is easier to do the procedure together, but really to cope and alone.

Do no harm

Heart massage cannot be done when the pulse and breathing are present. However, if you are sure that the heartbeat is absent, resuscitation should be started immediately. Any delay, even for a few seconds, reduces the chances of saving a person or may result in future neurological disorders.

When performing massage palms should be strictly on the sternum and not touch the ribs. Otherwise, they are likely to break.

The ribs can be broken, and if in the process of massage to tear off the palm of the sternum.

Shallow depth of pressure will be ineffective, and too strong fraught with chest injuries.

It is important to choose the desired squeeze point, otherwise you can cause injury.

You can not take long (more than 10 seconds) breaks in the procedure.

How to do artificial respiration
Artificial respiration, or, as doctors say, artificial lung ventilation (ALV) is the second component of resuscitation. It is done together with the NMS, if there are no heartbeats, or separately, when the pulse is heard, but the person does not breathe.

How to do artificial respiration
There are two methods of mechanical ventilation — mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-nose. In fact, the technique of their implementation is the same.

Action algorithm

Determine whether there is a pulse (see above) and whether the victim breathes. The presence of respiration is determined by hearing. You can use a mirror.
Place the victim on something solid, supine position. Throw back his head, if possible, putting something under it (roller, rolled-up jacket, etc.).
If necessary, clean the mouth (vomiting, foreign bodies, etc.). The mouth is cleaned with fingers, wrapping them with a napkin (it is possible without a napkin, if not).
The victim open his mouth, pushing his chin. Mouth can be covered with a bandage, napkin. Squeeze the nostrils (mouth – if “nose to mouth”).
Tightly press lips to lips (nose), make exhalation. Make 10 breaths per minute.
6. Control how the chest moves. It must rise and fall, which means that air has entered the lungs.
Do no harm

When carrying out IVL airways should be open. To do this, clean the mouth of the victim, move your head back, check that the tongue does not block the airway. Otherwise the air will come out or penetrate the stomach.

Press your lips as closely as possible to the lips (nose) of the victim to ensure maximum tightness. Then the air will enter the lungs.

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